This article will present the main aerodrome markings and signalization on runways and taxiways.
This chapter will show the runway marking signs.
- Runway markings are white.
- The only exception is if a pre-threshold area is not suitable for normal movement of aircraft, but only serving as a stop way from the opposite end of the runway. The chevrons indicating such a prethreshold area are yellow markings.
Runway marking requirements differ per runway classification:
The runway designator consists of a two digit number indicating the magnetic runway heading, rounded to the nearest 10 degrees.
Where parallel runways are located at an aerodrome with the same magnetic heading, the runway designator will include a letter R, L or C:
If there are more than 3 parallel runways, the runway designator number must change as per example:
- 1 runway = 26
- 2 runways = 26L, 26R
- 3 runways = 26L, 26C, 26R
- 4 runways = 26L, 26R, 27L, 27R
- 5 runways = 26L, 26C, 26R, 27L, 27R
Runway centreline markings are 30 meters long and separated by 30 meters between each mark.
Runway threshold markings are depending on runway width:
Pre-threshold marking is provided where a runway has:
- a displaced threshold
- a stop way
- a closed pre-threshold area
A displaced threshold is used where not all the runway is available for landing. The white arrows in the prethreshold area indicate that the surface is fit for ground movement of aircraft only (taxiing), and not for landing.
A touchdown zone is provided for all ILS equipped runways and runways where additional identification of the touchdown zone is required.
Touchdown zone markings consist of pairs of rectangular markings placed symmetrically to both sides of the runway centreline. The number of pairs is related to the LDA available:
Runway edge markings are provided on ILS equipped runways and runways where the declared runway width is less than the paved width.
Runway edge markings consist of white lines along the runway edge.
Taxiway markings are:
- Centre line
- Runway holding points
- Intermediate taxiway holding points
- Edge marking
- Closed cross for closed taxiways
All these taxiway markings are yellow.
Here are some examples of taxiway markings:
This indicates that beyond the marking the surface bearing strength is
less than the taxiway, or the area is not intended for aircraft use.
This indicates that the pilot shall take into account this intermediate crossing holding point to follow the air traffic controller instructions and to ensure the safety of nearby aircraft.
This marks the last holding point prior entering the runway.
This marks a CAT II/III holding point where a closer holding point to the runway is provided.
Enhanced taxiway centreline marking extends from runway holding point Pattern A away from the runway for 45 meters, or the next runway holding point if this is located within 45 meters.
This may be provided, as part of measures against runway incursions.
This indicates that the taxiway is unfit for the movement of aircraft. Taxi operations are forbidden.
Where it is impractical to place mandatory instruction signs, or as a supplement, some mandatory instruction markings may be provided on taxiways.
Mandatory instruction markings consist of a red background with a white inscription.
As the figure shows us, we can find the runway numbers and warning messages in order to minimize runway incursions.
Where it is impractical to place Information signs, or just in addition to information signs, information markings may be provided.
Information markings indicating a location consist of a black background with a yellow inscription. Information markings indicating a direction consist of a yellow background with a black inscription.
In addition to taxiway marking signs, in airfields, you can find additional signalization close to the taxiways.
Mandatory instruction signs indicate a location beyond which an aircraft shall not proceed without ATC clearance.
Mandatory instruction signs consist of a red background with a white inscription. They are located at runway holding points on both sides of the taxiway.
At uncontrolled airports, all care must be taken before proceeding. Mandatory instruction may be supplemented by location signs.
Information signs indicate either a location or a routing.
Information signs are usually located on the left side of the taxiway.
TORA = Take-off run available distance