The commercial air transport flight operation is the flight operation involving the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire.
The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for the operation, safety and security of the aeroplane and the safety of all crew members, passengers and cargo on board.
The pilot-in-command shall ensure that a flight will not be commenced unless it has been ascertained by every reasonable means available that the ground (or water), including radio communication or navigation aids available are adequate for the type of operation under which the flight is to be conducted.
Checklists shall be used by flight crews during all phases of operations, and in emergencies, to ensure compliance with the operating procedures contained in the aircraft operating manual.
The flight crew shall not operate flights on routes at altitudes lower than the minimum flight altitude established by the responsible state flown over (found on charts publications).
The flight crew shall not operate to or from an aerodrome using operating minima lower than those which may be established for that aerodrome by the state in which it is located (except specific approval).
Category II and category III instrument approach and landing operations shall be not authorized unless RVR information is provided.
A flight shall not be commenced until flight preparation forms have been completed certifying that the pilot- in-command is satisfied that:
An operational flight plan shall be completed for every intended flight.
A take-off alternate aerodrome shall be selected and specified in the operational flight plan if either the meteorological conditions at the aerodrome are below the operator's established aerodrome landing minimafor t hat operation.
The take-off alternate aerodrome shall be located within the following flight time from the aerodrome of departure:
An en-route alternate aerodrome, required by extended diversion time operation by aeroplanes with 2 turbine engines, shall be selected and specified in the operational flight plans.
For a flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules, at least one destination alternate aerodrome shall be selected and specified in the operational flight plan unless:
Operations into isolated aerodromes do not require the selection of destination alternate aerodromes but a supplementary check of meteorological conditions at destination must be performed before continuing beyond the point of no return: cloud base of at least 300m or 1000 ft above the minimum associated with the instrument approach procedure and visibility of at least 5.5 km or of 4 km more than the minimum visibility associated with the procedure.
2 destination alternate aerodromes shall be selected and specified in the operational flight plan when, for the destination aerodrome:
The specific safety risk assessment to select an alternate aerodrome shall include at least the:
A flight to be conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules (VFR) shall not be commenced unless current meteorological reports or a combination of current reports and forecasts indicate that the meteorological conditions along the route or that part of the route to be flown under visual flight rules will, at the appropriate time, be such as to enable compliance with these rules.
A flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules (IFR) shall not:
An aeroplane shall carry a sufficient amount of usable fuel to complete the planned flight safely and to allow for deviation from the planned operation.
The amount of usable fuel carried shall, as a minimum, be based on:
The pre-flight calculation of usable fuel required shall include:
- Taxi fuel
- Trip fuel
- Contingency fuel
- Destination alternate fuel
- Final reserve fuel
- Additional fuel
- Discretionary fuel
It is the amount of fuel expected to be consumed before take-off during start-up and taxi operation.
It is the amount of fuel required to enable the aeroplane to fly from take-off, or the point of in-flight re- planning, until landing at the destination aerodrome taking the operating conditions into account.
It is the amount of fuel required to compensate for unforeseen factors.It shall be 5% of the planned trip fuel based on the consumption rate used to plan the trip fuel, and it shall not be lower than the amount required to fly for 5 minutes at holding speed at 450m (or 1500ft) above the destination aerodrome in standard condition.
Unforeseen factors could have an influence on the fuel consumption or could be in deviation of the expected fuel consumption like deviations from forecast meteorological conditions, extended taxi time, extra holding procedures, deviation from planned routing or different cruising levels.
It is the amount of fuel required, where a destination alternate aerodrome is required or planned:
Where two destination aerodromes are required, the amount of fuel calculated shall take into account the aerodrome which requires the greater amount of alternate fuel.
Where a flight is operated without a destination alternate aerodrome, the amount of fuel required to enable the aeroplane to fly for 15 minutes at holding speed at 1500ft or 450m above destination aerodrome elevation in standard conditions. Where the destination aerodrome is an isolated aerodrome: (rare cases)
It is the amount of fuel required above the destination alternate aerodrome, or above the destination aerodrome when no destination alternate aerodrome is required, computed as follow:
This computation takes into account the estimated mass of the aircraft at such location.
It is the amount of fuel required if the minimum fuel calculated in Trip+Contingency+Destination alternate+Final reserve fuel is not sufficient to:
It is the extra amount of fuel to be carried at the discretion of the pilot-in-command.
This fuel can be extra fuel you may carry to perform a pilot exam in order to cover all planned exercises, or it can be the extra fuel, you may carry to perform a flight during an ATC exam covering extra holding patterns due to traffic flow.
In-flight fuel checks and fuel management shall be performed. The pilot-in-command shall continually ensure that the amount of usable fuel remaining on board is not less than the fuel required to proceed to an aerodrome where a safe landing can be made with the planned final reserve fuel remaining upon landing.
The pilot-in-command shall advise ATC of a minimum fuel state by declaring MINIMUM FUEL, when the pilot calculates that any change to the existing clearance to that aerodrome may result in landing with less than the planned final reserve fuel.
MINIMUM FUEL declaration informs ATC that all planned aerodrome options have been reduced to a specific aerodrome of intended landing and any change to the existing clearance may result in landing with less than the planned final reserve fuel.
MINIMUM FUEL is not an emergency situation but an indication that an emergency situation is possible should any additional delay occur.
The pilot-in-command shall declare a situation of fuel emergency by broadcasting MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL, when the calculated usable fuel predicted to be available upon landing at the nearest aerodrome where a safe landing can be made is less than the planned final reserve fuel.
The words "MAYDAY FUEL" describe the nature of the distress conditions.
A flight shall not be continued towards the aerodrome of intended landing if the latest available information indicates that at the expected time of arrival, a landing cannot be made in compliance with the operating minima.
An instrument approach shall not be continued below 1000ft (or 300m) above the aerodrome elevation or into the final approach segment when the reported visibility or controlling RVR is below the aerodrome operating minima.
If, after entering the final approach segment or after descending below 1000ft or 300m above the aerodrome elevation, the reported visibility or controlling RVR falls below the specified minimum, the approach may be continued to DA/H or MDA/H.
Hazardous flight conditions encountered, other than those associated with meteorological conditions, shall be reported to the appropriate air traffic controller as soon as possible.
Any change in the ATS flight plan shall be coordinated with the air traffic controller unit.
All aeroplanes operated in accordance with instrument flight rules (IFR) shall comply with the instrument flight procedures applicable for their flights.
The documentation will not present the following items as they are not used in the IVAO network:
An aeroplane shall be operated in compliance with the terms of its certificate of airworthiness and within the approved limitations contained in its flight manual.
In no case, the mass at the start of take-off will exceed the maximum take-off mass specified in the flight manual for the pressure-altitude appropriate to the elevation of the aerodrome.
In no case, the estimated mass for expected time of landing at the aerodrome of intended landing and at any destination alternate aerodrome will exceed the maximum landing mass specified in the flight manual for the pressure-altitude appropriate to the elevation of the aerodrome.
The aeroplane shall be able, in the event of a critical engine failing, or for other reasons, at any point in the take-off and stop with the accelerate-stop distance available, or to continue the take-off and clear all obstacles along the flight path.
The length of the runway available shall be taken of the loss of runway length due to alignment of the aeroplane prior to take-off.
The aeroplane shall be able, in the event of the critical engine becoming inoperative at any point along the route or planned diversions therefrom, to continue the flight to an aerodrome at which the standard landing can be met without flying below the minimum flight altitude at any point.
In the case of aeroplanes having 3 and more engines, the aeroplane shall be able, in the event of any 2 engines becoming inoperative, to continue the flight to an en-route alternate aerodrome and land.
The aeroplane shall, at the landing aerodrome (destination or any alternate), after clearing all obstacles in the approach path by a safe margin, be able to land, with assurance that it can come to a stop within the landing distance available.
Allowance shall be made for expected variations in the approach and landing techniques.
This chapter will not present the items non applicable for a daily use in the IVAO network like medical supplies, fire extinguishers, seat belt, flight recorder, voice recorder, data link recorder, life jacket, oxygen.
All aeroplanes when operated as VFR flights shall be equipped with:
VFR flights which are operated as controlled flights shall be equipped like aeroplanes operated in accordance with instrument flight rules.
All aeroplanes shall be equipped with suitable de-icing and/or anti-icing devices when operated in circumstances in which icing conditions are reported to exist or are expected to be encountered.
All aeroplanes when operated in accordance with the instrument flight rules shall be equipped with:
All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg newly introduced into service after 1 January 1975 shall be fitted with an emergency power supply, independent of the main electrical generating system, for the purpose of operating and illuminating, for a minimum period of 30 minutes, an attitude indicating instrument (artificial horizon), clearly visible to the pilot-in-command.
The emergency power supply shall be automatically operative after the total failure of the main electrical generating system and clear indication shall be given on the instrument panel that the attitude indicator(s) is being operated by emergency power.
All aeroplanes when operated at night shall be equipped with:
All aeroplanes with speed limitations expressed in terms of Mach number shall be equipped with a Mach number indicator.
All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or authorized to carry more than nine passengers shall be equipped with a ground proximity warning system.
All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 15 000 kg or authorized to carry more than 30 passengers shall be equipped with a ground proximity warning system which has a forward looking terrain avoidance function.
From 1 January 2007, all turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or authorized to carry more than nine passengers shall be equipped with a ground proximity warning system which has a forward looking terrain avoidance function.
From 1 January 2007, all piston-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or authorized to carry more than nine passengers shall be equipped with a ground proximity warning system which provides the warnings excessive descent rate and excessive altitude loss after take- off, warning of unsafe terrain clearance and a forward looking terrain avoidance function.
A ground proximity warning system shall provide automatically a timely and distinctive warning to the flight crew when the aeroplane is in potentially hazardous proximity to the earth's surface. A ground proximity warning system shall provide, unless otherwise specified herein, warnings of the following circumstances:
From 1 January 2003, all turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 15 000 kg or authorized to carry more than 30 passengers shall be equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II).
From 1 January 2005, all turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or authorized to carry
more than 19 passengers shall be equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II).
The TCAS instrument available with IVAO pilot interface can be considered as ACASII instrument.
All aeroplanes for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2009 shall be equipped with a data source that provides pressure-altitude information with a resolution of 7.62 m (25ft), or better.
After 1 January 2012, all aeroplanes shall be equipped with a data source that provides pressure-altitude information with a resolution of 7.62 m (25ft), or better.
An aeroplane shall be provided with radio communication equipment capable of:
The radio communication equipment shall provide for communications on the aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5MHz.
An aeroplane shall be provided with navigation equipment which will enable it to proceed:
The aeroplane shall be sufficiently provided with navigation equipment to ensure that, in the event of the failure of one item of equipment at any stage of the flight, the remaining equipment will enable the aeroplane to navigate in accordance with the previous requirement.
For operations where a navigation specification for performance-based navigation (PBN) has been prescribed, an aeroplane shall, in addition to the previous requirements be provided with navigation equipment which will enable it to operate in accordance with the prescribed navigation specifications.
For flights in defined portions of airspace where, based on Regional Air Navigation Agreement, minimum navigation performance specifications (MNPS) are prescribed, an aeroplane shall be provided with navigation equipment which continuously provides indications to the flight crew of adherence to or departure from track to the required degree of accuracy at any point along that track.
For flights in defined portions of airspace where a reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM) of 300m or 1000ft is applied between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive, an aeroplane shall be provided with equipment which is capable of:
The vertical navigation performance capability of the aeroplane shall satisfy the requirements and the operator has instituted appropriate flight crew procedures for operations in RVSM airspace.
Each IVAO division, which is responsible of airspace where RVSM has been implemented, shall establish procedures which ensure that appropriate action will be taken in respect of aircraft and operators found to be operating in RVSM airspace without a valid RVSM approval.
The documentation will not present the followings items as they are not used in the IVAO network: