The general aviation flight operation is the operation of an aircraft other than a commercial air transport operation.
The commercial air transport flight operation is the flight operation involving the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire.
General aviation operation does not cover specific flights like rescue and military...
The pilot-in-command shall ensure that a flight will not be commenced unless it has been ascertained by every reasonable means available that the ground (or water), including radio communication or navigation aids available are adequate for the type of operation under which the flight is to be conducted.
The pilot-in-command shall not operate to or from an aerodrome using operating minima lower than those which may be established for that aerodrome by the state in which it is located (except specific approval).
A flight shall not be commenced until the pilot-in-command is satisfied that:
Before starting a flight, the pilot-in-command shall be familiar with all available meteorological information appropriate to the intended flight.
Preparation for a flight away from the vicinity of the place of departure, and for every flight under the instrument flight rules (IFR), shall include:
A flight to be conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules (VFR) shall not be commenced unless current meteorological reports and forecasts indicate that the meteorological conditions along the route or that part of the route to be flown under visual flight rules will be such as to render compliance with these rules possible.
A flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules (IFR) shall not be commenced unless information is available which indicates that meteorological conditions at the aerodrome of intended landing and at least one destination alternate aerodrome (if required) will be at or above the aerodrome operating minima.
For a flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules, at least one destination alternate aerodrome shall be selected and specified in the operational flight plan unless:
Operations into isolated aerodromes do not require the selection of destination alternate aerodromes.
Associated meteorological conditions to evaluate in regards to point of no return decision: cloud base of at least 300m or 1000 ft above the minimum associated with the instrument approach procedure and visibility of at least 5.5 km or of 4 km more than the minimum visibility associated with the procedure.
A flight shall not be commenced unless taking into account both meteorological conditions and any delays that are expected in flight, and the aeroplane carries sufficient fuel and oil to ensure that it can safely complete the flight.
When the flight is conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules, the amount of fuel to be carried must permit:
When the flight is conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules, the amount of fuel to be carried must permit:
The regulation also takes into account subjects like:
The documentation will not present those items as they are not used in the IVAO network.
An instrument approach shall not be continued below 300m of 1000ft above the aerodrome elevation or into the final approach segment when the reported visibility or controlling RVR is below the aerodrome operating minima.
If, after entering the final approach segment or after descending below 300m (1000ft) above the aerodrome elevation, the reported visibility or controlling RVR falls below the specified minimum, the approach may be continued to DA/H or MDA/H.
An aeroplane operated in accordance with the instrument flight rules (IFR) shall comply with the instrument approach procedures published for the aerodrome of intended landing.
The following operation chapter shall be subject to the international general aviation operation with:
- Aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off weight exceeding 5700kg (M > 5700kg)
- Aircraft equipped with one or more turbojet engines
All information given in the previous chapter is also applicable for large and turbojet aeroplanes.
Checklists shall be used by flight crews during all phases of operations, and in emergencies, to ensure compliance with the operating procedures contained in the aircraft operating manual.
A take-off alternate aerodrome shall be selected and specified in the flight plan if the weather conditions at the aerodrome of departure are at or below the applicable aerodrome operating minima or it would not be possible to return to the aerodrome of departure for other reasons. The take-off alternate aerodrome when required shall be located within the following distance from the aerodrome of departure:
An aeroplane shall be operated in compliance with its certification approved documents and within the operating limitations prescribed by the certificating authority.
The pilot-in-command shall determine that aeroplane performance will permit the take-off and departure to be carried out safely.
Note that in this section, we will not describe all the inboard equipment that is not applicable for IVAO (life jackets, oxygen, flight recorders, microphone, fire extinguisher, data link recorders and emergency locator system...)
All aeroplanes when operating VFR shall be equipped with a means of measuring and/or displaying:
Regulation recommends that VFR flights which are operated as controlled flights should be equipped in accordance with IFR operation.
All aeroplanes when operating IFR shall be equipped with means of measuring and/or displaying:
In addition to these requirements, aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass exceeding 5700kg or aircraft equipped with one or more turbojet engines shall be equipped with 2 independent altitude measuring and display systems.
Aeroplanes when operated at night shall be equipped in accordance with IFR operation described above. In addition, aeroplanes shall be equipped with:
All turbine-engined aeroplanes with a maximum certificated take-of mass greater than 5700kg shall be equipped with a ground proximity warning system which has a forward looking terrain avoidance function.
Aeroplanes with a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5700kg (after 1/1/1975), shall be fitted with an emergency power supply independent of the main electrical generating system, for the purpose of operating and illuminating for a minimum period of 30 minutes, an attitude indicating instrument (artificial horizon). This emergency power system shall be automatically operative after the total failure of the main electrical generating system.
All turbine-engined aeroplanes with a maximum take-off mass in excess of 15000kg or authorized to carry more than 30 passengers shall be equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II) and airworthiness certificate is first issued after 1/1/2007.
Regulation recommends ACAS II for all turbine-engined aeroplanes greater than 5700kg.
In IVAO, the IVAO Pilot interface gives the opportunity to activate a TCAS system which can be considered like the required ACAS.
An aeroplane to be operated using instrument flight rules (IFR) or using visual flight rules (VFR) in controlled flights shall be provided with radio communication equipment capable of conducting two-way communication at any time during the flight with an air traffic controller.
The radio communication equipment shall also provide for communication on the aeronautical emergency frequency 121.500MHz.
In IVAO, the radio communication is given by the IVAO Pilot interface using text communication or via Teamspeak using voice communication. Only VHF frequencies are simulated including 121.500MHz (Guard frequency).
An aeroplane shall be provided with navigation equipment which will enable it to proceed:
Navigation for flights under the visual flight rules is accomplished by visual reference to landmarks.
For flights where reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM) of 300m or 1000ft is applied between FL290 and FL410 inclusive, an aeroplane shall be provided with equipment which is capable of:
The aircraft shall also be authorized and certified for operation in RVSM airspace.