During the approach phase of your flight, you must configure your aircraft for the ILS approach.
Before joining the localizer, you must check the following points:
1. Aircraft speed shall be reduced to between 180KT and 220KT.
2. Aircraft descent altitude shall be set to the interception altitude of the localizer published on charts.
3. Aircraft flaps are set to 5° position.
4. If you want to perform an automatic ILS approach, the APP button shall be activated
5. Set auto brake to adequate value
When performing an ILS approach, you must establish the localizer before the glide path.
You can consider being established when the indicator is staying at the central position ± 1 bullet.
If you are far from the localizer path and glide path, all ILS indicators are set to maximum deviation and remain at this position (like the image hereunder). If you are close to the path, the indicator shall move to the central position.
When the localizer indicator is on the left it means that the localizer path is on the aircraft's left, or the aircraft is on the right of the localizer path.
An ILS approach can be performed manually by the pilot. The use of autopilot is not mandatory
When the localizer indicator is moving to the central position, you must turn toward the runway.
You must adjust your heading in order to keep the localizer indicator near the centre position.
By doing so, you will keep the runway alignment until touchdown.
In the picture hereunder, you can notice:
When the glide indicator is on the top it means that the glide path is above the aircraft or the aircraft is below the glide path.
During normal ILS approach, you must always intercept and establish on the localizer when the glide path indicator is on top or above the middle (like the image above n°2).
The spoilers can be armed at this stage.
The runway can be seen now (depends on the weather, distance)
When the glide path indicator is moving to the central position, you must initiate your descent:
1. Reduce the power and speed down to 160kt
2. Set the flaps to 15° position
3. Set gear leveller to down position. And check that the gear feedback indicators are green
4. Maintain localizer and glide path indicator near the centre position.
5. Check your vertical speed indicator. The approximate value can be calculated for 3-degree descent angle: ground speed x 5. (example: 120kt x 5 = 600ft/min).
You must adjust your pitch and power in order to keep the glide path indicator near the centre position.
By doing so, you will maintain a constant descent until the short final.
When localizer and glide path indicator are located near the middle of the indicator, you can consider the ILS being established.
When stabilized on the ILS, it is time to check your approach progress:
In the example, the altitude to check is 1760ft at 4NM DME of TBN radio navigation aid.
When the descent rate is stabilized, the approach speed should be reduced to the final approach speed.
When you will be on short final, it is time to decide to land or go around, after the Missed Approach Point.
At decision altitude, if you see the runway or 3 consecutive approach lights on the ground, you can continue the ILS approach, if you don't have this visual reference, you must go around.
The aircraft must be stabilized on final in landing configuration at least 1000 ft above the ground. The pilot in command shall not hesitate to go around if his aircraft is not stabilized on final, or the approach speed is excessive.