To understand this practical tutorial, it is highly recommended to make yourself familiar with the following concepts:
Each ILS approach, during instrument flight rules (IFR) operations, is published on an instrument approach procedure chart named IAC chart.
This chart shall include:
During the approach phase of your flight, you must configure your aircraft for the ILS approach:
Before joining the localizer, you must check the following points:
When performing an ILS approach, you must establish the localizer before the glide path.
You can consider established when the indicator is staying at the central position ± 1 bullet.
If you are far from the localizer path and glide path, ILS indicators are stayed to maximum deviation and remains at this position (like the image here under).
If you are close to the path, the indicator shall move to the central position.
When the localizer indicator is on the left that means that the localizer path is on the aircraft's left, or the aircraft is on the right of the localizer path.
An ILS approach can be performed manually by the pilot. The use of autopilot is not mandatory
When the localizer indicator is moving to the central position, you must turn toward the runway.
You must handle your heading in order to keep the localizer indicator near the centre position.
If you do that, you will keep the runway alignment until the touchdown.
In the picture here under, you can notice:
The runway can be seen now (depends on the weather, distance)
When the glide indicator is on the top that means that the glide path is above the aircraft or the aircraft is below the glide path.
During normal ILS approach, you must always intercept and establish the localizer when the glide path indicator is on top or above the middle (like the image above n°2).
The spoilers can be armed at this stage.
When the glide path indicator is moving to the central position, you must initiate your descent:
You must handle your pitch and power in order to keep the glide path indicator near the centre position. If you do that, you will maintain a constant descent until the short final.
When localizer and glide path indicator are located near the middle of the indicator, you can consider that the ILS is established.
In this type of aircraft, there is usually no auto-throttle equipment. The pilot shall operate and adjust the throttle manually.
When you will be on short final, it is time to decide to land or to go around, after Outer Marker:
At decision altitude, if you see the runway or 3 consecutives approach lights on the ground, you can continue the ILS approach, if you don't have this visual reference, you must go around.
The aircraft must be stabilized on final in landing configuration at least 1000ft above the ground.
The pilot in command shall not hesitate to go around if his aircraft is not stabilized on final, or approach speed is excessive.
A full article is available about recommended elements of a stabilized approach
When stabilized on the ILS, it is time to check your approach progress:
In the example, the altitude to check is 1760ft at 4NM DME of TBN radio navigation aid.